VOLUNTARY SUBJECT OF BARGAINING (or Permissive Subject of Bargaining) Collective bargaining issues that are not considered mandatory (see mandatory subject of negotiations). Any party can propose a discussion on such a topic and the other party can negotiate it voluntarily. None of the parties can exist until the impasse over the inclusion of a voluntary subject in a contract. For example, the employer should not legally insist on negotiating the method of selecting stewards or the method of striking a vote. PREGNANCY DISCRIMINATION ACT – The Pregnancy Discrimination Act (PDA) of 1978 (Pub.L. 95-555) is a U.S. federal law. It amended Title VII of the Civil Rights Act of 1964 to “prohibit discrimination on the basis of sex on the basis of pregnancy.” The law refers to discrimination “on the basis of pregnancy, childbirth or related diseases.” Employers with fewer than 15 employees are excluded from the law. Employers are provided with medical care for electoral abortions, unless the mother`s life is at risk, but they must grant disabilities and sick leave to women who are recovering from abortion. The Pregnancy Discrimination Act requires employers to treat pregnant women in the same way as all other workers or candidates. This is an amendment to Title VII of the Civil Rights Act of 1964, which relates to discrimination on the basis of sex. The Pregnancy Discrimination Act was the result of two Supreme Court cases which found that the exclusion of sickness and disability benefits did not discriminate against pregnant women. In 1978, as a result of these decisions, Congress amended the Civil Rights Act expressly prohibiting discrimination on the basis of pregnancy INTEREST ARBITRAGE – an arbitration procedure that was agreed upon by the parties to the agreement, which gives the arbitrator the power to determine what provisions the parties have in their collective agreement.
This differs from claims arbitration, which interprets the terms of an agreement and turns to adjudicate a claim. AUTHORIZATION CARD – A union card filled out by a worker during a campaign of representation. The card usually indicates the union as a representative of the workers` collective agreement and must be dated and signed. On a typical map of union policy, it may be said: “I heresafter authorize (the name of the union), its representatives or agents, to act for me as an exclusive representative for collective bargaining with my employer on wages, benefits and other terms of employment. I understand and agree that this card can be used to establish the majority of workers in the unit in which I am employed and the voluntary recognition of my employer without the election of the NLRB and/or to obtain an election from the NLRB.” The NLRB accepts 30% of staff signatures on cards or petitions as the “talent of interest” needed to organize an election.